The Persian carpet or rug is an indispensable part of Persian art and culture. Carpet weaving is surely one of the most important indications of Persian culture, art and dates back to the old Persia. The exquisitely intricate patterns and natural dyes have represented it as one of the most Iranian worthwhile skills.
Persian carpets can be divided into three groups:
Zilus are flat weaves but carpets or rugs are pile weaves. the pile can be from silk, wool, or fine wool that is called Kork.
Persian Rug Tools
Persian carpets and rugs are mainly made on the vertical loom but in the case of being lucky to visit the Iranian nomads, we can see the horizontal loom as well. They use the horizontal one in order to fold and carry them easily from camp to camp.
There are other tools such as comb, hook, spindle, scissors, knife, and of course the design plate that you can see and experience the way of using these tools on our journey.
The Pazyryk carpet is the oldest carpet in the world which was found in the Pazyryk Valley at the beginning of the Altai Mountains in Russia in the frozen tomb of a Scythian ruler along with other ancient artifacts such as a wooden vase, a mummy and the image of a horseman,…by Sergei Rodenko, a Russian archaeologist From 1326 to 1328 (1949-1947). Sergei Rodenko after studying the structure, texture and design of the carpet and its patterns, noticed the great similarity of the motifs of this rug with the reliefs of Persepolis; “It reminds us Persepolis.” He said. Most researchers consider this carpet to be part of the handicrafts of the Parthians or Medes. But there are still different theories about the true history of this carpet. As above mentioned the Pazyryk carpet was found in a tomb of a Scythian king. The Scythians, also known as the Saka or the Iskuzai, were nomadic peoples who lived in the years before the Achaemenids in parts of Iran.
Pazyryk carpet is a wool carpet with vivid colors. This quadrate carpet is almost square and its dimensions are 1.98 by 1.89 meters. The patterns in it include a picture of horsemen, grazing deer, and mythical animals with eagle heads and lion bodies, and floral fringes. The rug is currently kept in the Armitage Museum in Russia. It has 3600 symmetrical knots and is one of the most beautiful rugs ever woven in the world and is truly one of the glorious symbols of Iranian art.
There are various patterns woven on the rug, which were designed with great care and art, and behind each of them lies a long story; There are flowers on both sides of the carpet that have a Babylonian design, and this design was popular before the birth of Christ. This rug has five margins around it. In the middle of this carpet, you can see flowers with four lotus leaves. All around these flowers, you can still see blue and very dazzling flowers, which are more common in Turkish carpets today. The colors used in Pazyryk are vivid and beautiful colors, such as blue, yellow, red, etc., which are dull today due to antiquity, but must have had bright and dazzling colors in the past. Thousands of carpets have been simulated and copied from it since the discovery of Pazyryk.
Among the unique patterns and motifs of this rug are 28 horsemen whose image has been immortalized in this amazing ancient masterpiece and each of their faces, clothes and even helmets, which are completely Iranian, have been designed delicately with all elegance. The pictures of these horsemen were woven with amazing delicate details. For example, the tails of the horses are woven (this custom has been common during the wars and battles), or even the riders’ clothes and outfits have been designed with incredible care and accuracy. Legendary animals with lion’s head and horse’s body, which are Iranian mythical creatures, can also be seen around the carpet, reflecting the beliefs of the ancient people of Iran.
Apart from the fact that the designs woven on this carpet are a perfect mirror of the history, culture and art of ancient Iranian people, another noteworthy point is that its material is made of fibers and wool, which decomposes after a short time and disappears but this amazing wool carpet has survived to this day. Researchers say the only reason given for this was because of the mountain cold. It is completely frozen and remains the same to this day.